This Doctor of Philosophy submission is comprised of a Folio of compositions with critical commentary based on the creative processes and investigations that were undertaken to develop original works for the left-hand only double bass. As a consequence of working through this unique instrumental setting, this research was also orientated to investigate the role of physicality through the concept of Instrumental Resistance as a structural parameter in music composition and performance. 

This project resulted in the creation of two new works specifically written for left-hand only double bass, Lienzos Migrantes (2020-21) and Desplazamientos (2018-22), as well as a chamber music piece for a septet comprised of strings and woodwinds, Pulmones Retorciendo (2021).  In addition, this folio of compositions is accompanied by a collection of complete video recordings for each piece as well as the complete sketching data set that was used to pre-design the most relevant compositional parameters of the left-hand only pieces that comprise this project. 

The composition process of these works was centred on the development of a new technique for the left-hand only double bass based on extended techniques that are already present in literature, and most importantly, around the concept of instrumental resistance, in which the physical relation between a performer and their instrument can act as a conveyer of musical meaning, as it relies on the perception of the necessary physical gestures that activate the instrument in a music performance. 

The creation and analysis of these new works through a complex array of compositional constraints and performance strategies such as the purposely designed Tension Formula, demonstrated the potential of a resistance-based music in which the perception of physical tension as the main intended expressive layer is conditioned by the specific treatment of the musical parameters that comprise it and directed by the primal physical quality that is embedded in every composing and performing gesture.



Born and raised in Bogota, Colombia, Bernardo started his music studies at the age of 17 and holds a Bachelor degree from the Universidad Javeriana in Bogota where he was a student of double bassist Alexandr Sanko; as well as a Bachelor and Masters degree from the Hochschule für Musik Hanns Eisler Berlin in Germany where he studied double bass with Janne Saksala, Axel Scherka, Esko Laine, with an honourable mention of Prof. Klaus Stoll as a personal mentor and inspiration. 

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